The DNA profile of King Richard III of England
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The DNA of King Richard III of England
Richard III, King of England, is one of the most controversial figures in British history. Born on October 2, 1452, he ruled from 1483 to 1485 until he was defeated at the Battle of Bosworth by Henry Tudor, later King Henry VII. Richard was the last king from the House of Plantagenet and his death is often considered the end of the Middle Ages in England.
Richard III was the youngest surviving son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, and Cecily Neville. His siblings included Edward IV, king from 1461 to 1470 and from 1471 to 1483, and George, Duke of Clarence. These Plantagenet descendants were closely involved in the power struggle of the Wars of the Roses, a bitter dispute between the houses of York and Lancaster over the English crown.
Richard III had a notable physical disability, his back was curved, possibly due to scoliosis. However, this did not detract from his ability to hold the throne and fight in battle. Richard is also remembered for the drama "Richard III" by William Shakespeare, in which he is portrayed as a power-hungry schemer and murderer.
Coming to power through the declaration of his two nephews, the so-called "Princes in the Tower," as illegitimate and their subsequent presumed murder, Richard's reign was marked by unrest and rebellion. Richard's reign ultimately led to the establishment of the House of Tudor and a new era in English history.
In August 2012, the excavation of Richard III's presumed tomb took place in a parking lot in Leicester. DNA analysis confirmed the identity of the remains in February 2013. The findings from this analysis helped to greatly expand our understanding of Richard III, his origins, and his health.
The DNA analysis was also able to debunk circulating rumors about Richard's paternal lineage. Based on analysis of the male Y chromosome, researchers determined that a discrepancy exists between Richard's Y chromosome and some of his current descendants in direct, pure male lineage.
Evaluation of mitochondrial DNA, which is passed only from mother to child, revealed a match between the remains of King Richard III and the descendants of his sister, Anne of York. This confirmed the maternal lineage of the king.
Regarding the paternal line, it turned out that Richard belonged to haplogroup G-P287. A haplogroup is a group of genes in an organism that are inherited together and allow for considerations of relatedness. Belonging to this specific haplogroup is relatively rare in Western Europe and contradicts genealogical records that claim Richard came from Plantagenet - a family belonging to haplogroup R1b.
Overall, the controversy surrounding the heritability and DNA results of Richard III shows how cutting-edge science can help clarify and even change our ideas about historical figures. Research on Richard III has greatly expanded our understanding of him and his times, allowing us to reconstruct one of England's most famous histories.
King Richard III of England belonged to haplogroup G in the paternal line and to haplogroup J in the maternal line.
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Questions and answers about the DNA test
After we have received the samples it normally takes 6-8 weeks for the fist results. Depending on the chosen test the result is thus already fully ready or further analysis are done.
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This is how the DNA origin analysis works
A Mucus Sample suffices to get a sample of your DNA. Taking the sample is simple and painless and can be done at home. Send the samples with the envelop included in the sampling kit.