Ancient tribe Inka
Historically, the Inca people around 1200 in the area of Cuzco in southern Peru become comprehensible. Originally, the name "Inca" was associated with a local clan or clan or with the ruling elite; only later was it used as a popular name.
In the middle of the 15th century, the Incas began a systematic policy of conquest, culminating in the creation of the largest territorial state in pre-Columbian America. Finally, around 1500 the imperial borders in the north to Pasto (northern Ecuador) and in the south to Concepción (central Chile). In the west the Pacific coast formed a natural border. In the east, the territory comprised most of Bolivia and extended as far as Argentina.
Despite an urban culture and the well-known stone monuments, the Inca culture was a predominantly peasant civilization, based on agricultural, cultural and ruling techniques, some of which had been developed for generations, in a cultural landscape thousands of years old, and which only allowed a very small, aristocratic ruling elite to enjoy an elaborate urban lifestyle.
The Incas built the city of Machu Picchu in the 15th century at an altitude of 2430 meters on a ridge between the peaks of Huayna Picchu and the mountain of the same name (Machu Picchu) in the Andes. The city comprised 216 stone buildings, located on terraces and connected by a system of stairs. Research today assumes that the city in its heyday could accommodate and provide for up to 1000 people. Various theories have been developed about the sense and purpose of this city. The archaeological findings testify to a largely developed and once fully functional city in which people lived for a long time. It has, for example, a still fully functional water supply and an elaborate rainwater drainage system.
The empire of the Inca was destroyed by the Spanish in 1537. By 1650, the population of South America had decreased by about 14 million from perhaps 18-20 million, using essentially democidal means such as extermination by labor and squeezing on poor land, while genocidal massacres remained the exception. The Inca society was socially strictly hierarchically structured. At the top was the absolute ruler, the Sapa Inca, whose unrestricted authority was made absolute in an elaborate ceremony. The ruler's dignity was hereditary.
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The Inca folklore is connected with the Quechua language. The language of the elite was called "Inca Simi" (language of the nobility), that of the farmers and herdsmen "Runa Simi" (language of the subjects). The language variant of the Inca nobility came out of use with the political disempowerment of their speakers.
The modern Quechua languages (with more than 8.5 million speakers) are related to classical Quechua, but not daughter languages.
The Incas used the knot writing Quipu (Khipu), which only expressed numbers, and the Tocapu patterns, which were woven in textiles and for which it is not yet certain whether it was a writing. For an exact transmission of the information content of a khipu, one was dependent on the spoken word of the message transmitter for additional explanations.
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