Ancient tribe Indians - Ancestry and origin
India is a multi-ethnic state, whose ethnic diversity is comparable to that of the entire European continent. Approximately 72% of Indians are Indo-Aryans and 25% Dravidans, who live mainly in the south. 3% belong to other groups, mostly Tibeto-Burmese, Munda- and Mon-Khmer peoples in the Himalayan region, as well as in northeastern and eastern India.
8,2% of the inhabitants belong to the indigenous tribal population, who refer to themselves as the Adivasi, although they are ethnically anything but homogeneous. The Indian Constitution recognizes more than 600 tribes. They are, for the most part, outside of the Hindu caste system, and remain, in spite of laws existing for their protection, severely disadvantaged in society. The Adivasi make up a higher portion of the population in the northeast region (especially Mizoram, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Arunchal Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura and Sikkim) as well as in the eastern and central Indian states of Jharkhand, Chhittisgarh, Orissa, and Madhya Pradesh.
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The earliest finds attesting human habitation in the region come from the river valleys south of the Himalayas near Rawalpindi. The only slightly worked stone tools from the Paleolithic may be between 300,000 and 400,000 years old. While chopping instruments and scree were used in the north, the hand axe, whose origins lie in Africa, already appears in the central and southern regions. Toward the end of the Old Stone Age, tools become more diverse in middle and southern India. The spread of microliths in the same area during the Middle and New Stone Ages is indicative of a change in the way of life. Between 4,000 and 3,000 B.C., hunters in the northwest of the continent left the mountains and settled as farmers in villages along the Indus, where the first urban cultures developed from the fourth millennium B.C. on.
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